Greenville is a city in Bond County, Illinois, United States, 51 miles (82 km) east of St. Louis. The population as of the 2010 census was 7,000. It is the county seat of Bond County.
Greenville is located near the center of Bond County at 38°53′N 89°24′W / 38.883°N 89.400°W / 38.883; -89.400 (38.8895, -89.4036). U.S. Route 40 and Interstate 70 pass to the south of downtown, both highways leading west 49 miles (79 km) to St. Louis and east 19 miles (31 km) to Vandalia.
Greenville is also located on Illinois Route 127, which is a major north-south route connecting Southern Illinois to Springfield.
The National Road passes through Greenville. East of Greenville it follows Illinois Route 140, and west it follows U.S. Route 40. Its route west of town was the source of a historic controversy. Original plans were to connect Greenville to St. Louis. However, the Illinois General Assembly preferred a route to Alton in order to favor an Illinois city directly on the Mississippi River. When federal money for the road ran out in 1840 at Vandalia, 19 miles east of Greenville, the State Legislature refused to fund it further. Residents of Greenville, Highland, Troy, and Collinsville paid to complete the road to East St. Louis. The “State Policy” of favoring Alton over St. Louis remained a major political issue in Illinois until the Civil War.
According to the 2010 census, Greenville has a total area of 6.19 square miles (16.03 km), all land.
As of the census of 2000, there were 6,955 people, 2,019 households, and 1,280 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,337.0 people per square mile (516.4/km²). There were 2,171 housing units at an average density of 417.3 per square mile (161.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 82.40 percent White, 15.44 percent African American, 0.62 percent Native American, 0.47 percent Asian, 0.37 percent from other races, and 0.69 percent from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.46 percent of the population.
There were 2,019 households, out of which 30.0 percent had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.7 percent were married couples living together, 10.0 percent had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.6 percent were non-families. 33.4 percent of all households were made up of individuals and 17.7 percent had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.90.
In the city, the population was spread out with 15.9 percent under the age of 18, 18.1 percent from 18 to 24, 32.7 percent from 25 to 44, 18.7 percent from 45 to 64, and 14.6 percent who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 143.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 152.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $35,650, and the median income for a family was $45,557. Males had a median income of $26,105 versus $20,889 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,326. About 8.8 percent of families and 11.8 percent of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.0 percent of those under age 18 and 9.9 percent of those age 65 or over.